In May 2014, the ZEV Task Force released the Multi-State ZEV Action Plan, identifying 11 priority actions the states could take to support the deployment of zero emission vehicles. The actions, and the states’ strategies for implementing them, are listed below.
Action #1: Promote the availability and effective marketing of all plug-in electric vehicle models in our states
- Work with the automobile manufacturers and dealers to ensure that all plug-in electric vehicle models are available for sale and aggressively marketed in all MOU states.
- Collaborate with automakers and dealers to identify, evaluate, and implement creative financing approaches and other effective strategies to reduce vehicle purchase price and increase ZEV sales.
- Collaborate with automobile manufacturers, dealers, Clean Cities programs, and other interested stakeholders to incorporate ZEV outreach and education events for consumers in conjunction with auto shows, Earth Day celebrations, and National Plug-In Day.
- Institute programs to identify and highlight “ZEV champions” among dealers through Governor-recognition programs and other profile-raising approaches.
Action #2: Provide consumer incentives to enhance the ZEV ownership experience
- Support and enable reciprocity for non-monetary ZEV incentives across MOU states and establish a common image or decal to identify qualifying vehicles.
- Evaluate opportunities to increase the effectiveness of state-provided purchase incentives by converting them to “point-of-purchase” rebates to provide a stronger incentive at the time of sale and to qualify more consumers for the full value of this sales incentive.
- Support the continuation of the federal tax credit for PEVs and FCEVs.
- Conduct a collective study to evaluate the effectiveness of various local, state, and national ZEV incentives to inform state and local government policy.
- Provide key local jurisdictions with models for partnering with businesses to develop ZEV-ready plans that include consumer incentives.
- Foster the development of a viable secondary market for used ZEVs to ensure the owners can achieve a fair trade-in value and make these vehicles available to used car buyers.
Action #3: Lead by example through increasing ZEVs in state, municipal, and other public fleets
- Establish a goal that a minimum of 25 percent of new light-duty state fleet purchases and leases for applicable uses, to the extent available, will be ZEVs by 2025.
- Encourage other fleets to adopt similar goals.
- Develop best practice policies to maximize the “electric miles” driven by government fleet vehicles.
- Include ZEVs and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on state purchase and rental car contracts.
- Establish a multi-state ZEV Fleets Users Forum to organize communication with ZEV manufacturers on fleets’ needs, serve as an information and best-practices clearinghouse, and provide a venue for coordinating research and data collection.
- Use common data collection elements and protocols to collect and share information among states on ZEV fleet purchases and operational cost savings.
- Assess feasibility and opportunities for pooled purchases with other government and private fleets to secure greater price discounts, stronger contract terms and conditions, and improved maintenance and service agreements.
Action #4: Encourage private fleets to purchase, lease, or rent ZEVs
- Implement high-profile public-private programs, such as Governors’ events and recognition programs, to promote and encourage ZEVs in private fleets and workplace charging programs.
- Coordinate with academics, nonprofit partners, and the U.S. DOE to help fleet managers develop the business case for integrating ZEVs into their fleets.
Action #5: Promote workplace charging
- Lead by example by promoting state agency workplace charging with a goal that, by 2020, all interested state agency employees with PEVs will have a place to charge them.
- Promote the installation of charging infrastructure for commuters at public transit hubs.
- Implement high profile public-private programs, such as Governors’ events, to promote and encourage the deployment of workplace charging, particularly at large companies, universities, and hospitals.
- Coordinate with the U.S. DOE Workplace Charging Challenge initiative to educate major employers about the need for and benefits of workplace charging infrastructure.
- Develop and circulate surveys and educational materials to help employers gauge employee interest, determine the appropriate charging systems, estimate capital and operating costs, and understand installation requirements.
- Encourage automobile manufacturers, dealers, and charging companies to engage with large employers to promote workplace charging.
Action #6: Promote ZEV infrastructure planning and investment by public and private entities
- Research driver charging behavior to determine the need for non-residential charging, including the level of charging and importance of location.
- Collaborate in the coordinated deployment of DC fast chargers along key inter-state corridors to facilitate longrange PEV travel along priority roadways such as the I-95 Northeast Corridor and the I-5 West Coast Highway.
- Coordinate with researchers to undertake multi-state mapping and modeling analyses to inform the design and implementation of efficient corridor charging networks.
- Pursue resource partnerships to design and execute a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle infrastructure feasibility study for the MOU states outside of California.
- Strive to ensure that all appropriate charging/fueling installations receiving public funding be open to the public and accessible to all PEV/FCEV drivers.
- Initiate a dialogue to address federal restrictions on electricity and hydrogen sales within certain limited access rights-of-way.
Action #7: Provide clear and accurate signage to direct ZEV users to charging and fueling stations and parking
- Coordinate with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to ensure sufficient and up-to-date coverage of uniform signage on federal highways using the “Alternative Electric Vehicle Charging Symbol Sign.”
- Develop and install uniform signage consistent with FHWA’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for use on state and local roadways to direct drivers to charging and hydrogen fueling stations.
- Support the adoption of national standards for highway signs indicating hydrogen fueling stations.
Action #8: Remove barriers to ZEV charging and fueling station installations
- Coordinate with nonprofit groups developing model codes and standards to promote consistency in the development of state and local government requirements related to the installation of PEV charging infrastructure.
- Establish consistent codes and standards for ZEV infrastructure through revisions to national and state building codes.
- Promote the development of consistent policies, codes and standards to facilitate the deployment of charging stations:
- Consider amendments to state building or electrical codes to ensure that new buildings are ZEV-ready, including criteria such as pre-wiring and electric panel capacity requirements.
- Develop model local government requirements to incorporate EVSE into new multi-family dwellings and non-residential buildings, and model ordinances requiring them to dedicate a portion of their parking spaces to PEV charging.
- Develop a streamlined model permit and zoning process that local governments can adopt to ensure timely approval of DC fast charge installations.
- Develop siting and cost allocation criteria for public charging and responsibility for outreach.
- Design utility demand charges and interconnect fees for PEV charging.
- Provide planning and siting assistance and resources to municipalities and other local planning entities.
- Develop governors’ recognition programs for local government ZEV champions.
Action #9: Promote access, compatibility, and interoperability of the plug-in electric vehicle charging network
- Support the adoption and implementation of effective National Institute of Standards and Technology standards for EVSE interoperability.
- Work with EVSE providers to ensure that PEV drivers have the information and freedom to use any public charging station by allowing common forms of payment, not requiring subscription or membership status, encouraging use of open-source protocols, and making fees transparent to customers.
- Ensure that all ZEV charging/fueling installations are registered with the National Renewable Energy Lab’s Alternative Fuels Data Center database to provide a simple means for PEV drivers to locate available charging stations, identify the type of charging available, and determine charging costs.
- Require all publicly funded chargers that are accessible to the public and networked to apply the Open Charge Point Protocol communication standard that allows charging stations and central systems from different vendors to communicate.
- Encourage dual-compatibility for all new public DC fast charge stations to ensure that all PEVs can utilize any public charging station, whether equipped with CHAdeMO or Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) charging ports.
- Follow and support national and California efforts to develop hydrogen infrastructure codes and standards for station configuration, fuel quality, and dispensing accuracy.
- Seek federal guidance on ensuring charging station compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Action #10: Remove barriers to the retail sale of electricity and hydrogen as transportation fuels and promote competitive plug-in electric vehicle charging rates
- Promote necessary legislation, regulations, standards, or certifications to enable the commercial sale of electric vehicle charging and hydrogen as transportation fuel, including on a per-kilowatt-hour or on a per-kilogram basis, and ensure transparent pricing.
- Request that Public Utility/Service Commissions (PUCs/ PSCs) open proceedings to:
- Ensure electric vehicle service providers or others that operate charging facilities for the sole purpose of providing electricity as a transportation fuel are not defined as a “public utility” and therefore are not subject to regulation as such an entity.
- Determine the appropriate level of consumer protection and regulatory oversight for providers of charging facilities, including utilities and non-utilities.
- Evaluate residential and business electric utility rate structures or other mechanisms, consistent with statutory authority, that provide lower-cost electricity for off-peak charging.
- Encourage utilities to evaluate and revise, as necessary and consistent with statutory authority, appropriate rate structures based on PEV charging data, customer enrollment, and other customer feedback to promote off-peak charging and maximize consumer savings and grid reliability.
- Explore the role utilities, energy service companies, and other public or private entities can play in the deployment of ZEV fueling infrastructure, particularly with respect to fast charging to facilitate long distance travel and charging for those without dedicated home charging.
- Evaluate policies with respect to utility demand charges and interconnect fees for PEV charging.
- Explore the use of hydrogen for grid support, especially with regard to storage of excess electricity produced by renewables.
Action #11: Track and report progress toward meeting the goal of 3.3 million ZEVs on our roadways by 2025
- Report annually on ZEV MOU state landing page the number of ZEVs registered in our states, the number of public fueling stations in our states and state fleet ZEV acquisitions.